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Chemical Name: 17a-methyl-17b-hydroxy-1,4-androstadien-3-one
Synonyms: Dianabol (D-bol), Methandienone, Nerobol
Active Half Life: 3 – 6 hours
Anabolic : Androgenic Ratio: 1:1–1:8 (1:1 Testosterone as standard in rodents)
The addition of a methyl group at the 17α position of the D cyclopentane ring slows First Pass Metabolism in the Liver to allow it to remain in circulation longer than testosterone. The double bond between C1 and C2 of the A cyclohexane ring reduces the androgencity of the compound with a weaker relative binding affinity for the androgen receptor (AR) than testosterone.
Methandrostenolone was first reported in the literature in 1955; and soon released in 1958 by Ciba Pharmaceuticals to the US prescription market under the drug name Dianabol. A derivative of testosterone, the compound has been modified to reduce the androgenic and preserve the anabolic properties. Historically, it has been the most commonly used C-17a alkylated oral steroid for physique enhancing purposes but does have its history deep rooted in medical prescriptions also.
Originally developed alongside Dr John Ziegler; a physician for US Olympic teams, in hopes of reducing competition to Russia who were already utilizing testosterone with their athletes, Methandrostenolone brought a new dynamic as a compound with lower androgenicity but with retained anabolic properties, soon causing advancements in competitive sports. However, within 5 years the compound was beginning to trend a new wave in steroid abuse in sports with many athletes disregarding the initial prescription guidelines of 5-15mg.
In 1970, the FDA pushed Ciba for clarification and publiciation of Methandrostenolone’s approved uses and accepted a “probably effective” stance on treating osteoporosis and pituitary deficient dwarfism whilst research continued into its effect on wasting conditions. There are several reports in the literature of its use in childhood dystrophies. By 1983, Ciba withdraw Dianabol from the US market followed by full removal of generic Methandrostenolone by the FDA in 1985. Non-medical use was outlawed in the U.S. under the Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990.
Metabolism and Excretion of Methandrostenolone
The metabolism of Methandrostenolone is mainly in the liver by 6β-hydroxylation, 3α- and 3β-oxidation, 5β-reduction, 17-epimerization, and conjugation among other reactions with excretion occurring via urine.
Human mitochondrial steroid hydroxylating enzymes CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 (non liver native) have also been shown to be capable of metabolizing the compound leading to the formation of 11β-hydroxy and 18-hydroxy metabolites. Unconjugated, beta-glucuronidated and sulfated metabolites have also been observed in the urine. Long-term use of Methandrostenolone at high dosages can lead to the appearance of unmetabolized drug in the urine.
Side Effects of Dianabol (Methandrostenolone)
Whilst technically an Anabolic steroid, Methandrostenolone still has androgenic side effects; commonly oily skin and acne (due to sebaceous gland androgenic effects), and body/facial hair growth.
Women should take note of its potential virilizing effects such as deepening on the voice, irregularities in the menstrual cycle, facial hair growth and clitoral enlargement alongside. Clinical history reports of 2 prepubertal girls treated with Dianabol cream by their family physicians during 6 and 8 months because of anal eczema. In both of them, growth velocity and bone maturation was accelerated, and there was hypertrophy of the clitoris and deepening of the voice. All symptoms in one of the girls, with the exception of the deep voice, had disappeared six years after the discontinuation of treatment.
Whilst there is potential for Methandrostenolone to convert via 5-alpha reductase to 5-alpha-dihydroMethandrostenolone, it does so at a very slow rate due to a low binding affinity for the 5-alpha reductase enzyme.
Thyroid Binding Hormone Globulin (THBG) levels have been shown to be effected by as little as 10mg resulting in potentially higher levels of free circulating thyroxine and triiodothyronine.
Due to this structural modification, Methandrostenolone shares similarity to Boldenone (except for the 17α methyl group); aromatizing at the same extent as Boldenone. However, it is much more estrogenic due to its pathway conversion to a 17α-methylestradiol, a potent estrogen metabolite which is metabolism-resistant and more biologically active than estradiol.
Testosterone Suppression (HPTA)
HPTA suppression is observed at moderate dosage due to negative feedback to the Hypothalmic Pituitary Testicular Axis (HPTA); either as a result of elevated estrogen or elevation in serum testosterone level. Methandrostenolone at a dosage of 15 mg was shown to reduce plasma testosterone levels by 69%. Return of normal HPTA function is normally observed following 6-8 weeks discontinuation provided Secondary or Primary Hypogonadism not developing as a result.
Another important clinical observation is a reduction in Sex Hormone Binding Globuin (SHBG) is observed with Methandrostenolone usage, resulting in higher levels of circulating free testosterone.
In females, Methandrostenolone has been shown to cause menstruation issues, resulting in irregularities of menstrual cycle.
Methandrostenolone is a sperm-suppressive agent. At 15 mg for 2 months, sperm density per ml decreased 46% and 73%. Three of the subjects tested had became azoospermic and one of them had only 1 million sperms/ml after two months use of the drug. The percentage of motile cells decreased in two months about 30%. The percentage of sperms with normal configuration decreased significantly both in one and two months, from 73 ± 8% to 65 ± 5% and 42 ± 23%, respectively. The percentage of sperms with amorphous head increased about 100% during two months use. The changes in sperm morphology and production were however observed to be reversible.
Being a C17-α alkylated compound, this protects the molecule from First Pass Liver Metabolism allowing a very high percentage of the compound to enter the bloodstream following oral administration.
The literature is clear in the association of Methandrostenolone with Hepatic Jaundice, Hepatitis, Cholestasis and Liver Parenchyma cell alterations. Cholestatic Jaundice in rare circumstances can result in renal failure and potentially death.
In rare circumstances, liver carcinoma can develop as a result of liver dysfunction in potential combination with environment factors.
Elevations in bilirubin, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alanine Transferase (ALT) and Aspartate Transferase (AST) should be closely monitored by bloodwork by a physician during and post use.
A case reports of a 28-year-old body builder who was admitted because of jaundice. For 80 days, until 3 weeks before hospitalization, he had been taking 10-50mg Methandrostenolone by mouth, and 50mg stanozolol intramuscularly every other day. Bilirubin concentration was raised to 4.5 mg/dl, cholestasis enzymes were normal, while transaminase activities were raised. Liver biopsy was compatible with cholestasis induced by anabolic steroids. Although the steroids had been discontinued, the patient’s general condition deteriorated over 7 weeks. Serum bilirubin rose up to a maximum of 77.9 mg/dl. In addition renal failure developed with a creatinine concentration of 4.2 mg/dl. The patient’s state improved simultaneously with the administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA); a bile acid derivative; and the biochemical values gradually reached normal levels after several weeks. In this case there was a notable temporal coincidence between the administration of ursodeoxycholic acid and the marked clinical improvement. As such TUDCA may be a viable compound as prophylactic treatment.
Cardiovascular (Cholesterol / Lipid)
Methandrostenolone has a reported history of causing elevated serum total cholesterol due to elevations in LDL (bad) cholesterol; as well as causing issues with decreased HDL (good) cholesterol. This reduction in serum HDL is mediated by hepatic triglyceride lipase, an enzyme that regulates serum lipids.
Oral C17-α alkylated AAS stimulate hepatic triglyceride lipase, resulting in decreased serum HDL. Injectable administration of AASs has less profound effects on this enzyme because they enter the circulation without passing through the liver.
Whilst not directly nephrotoxic, Methandostenolone can increase renal artery BP, probably via potentiating the renin–angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) along with the up-regulation of endothelin. RAAS can increase BP and water retention through promoting tubular sodium and water re-absorption. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) may also result as a correlation to increases in serum creatinine.
In past literature, it has been attempted to associate violent crime to the use of anabolic steroids but the results are inconclusive in light of other poly substance abuse.
No effect was observed on brain reward-performance of methandrostenlone but a small effect has been observed with Testosterone which may influence the sensitivity of the brain reward system. No effect was observed on changes in hippocampal activity in rats treated with Methandrostenolone.
Reported Clinical Uses
The earliest reports of clinical use have been in pediatrics to treat childhood muscular dystrophy as well as attempting to resolve growth issues in prepubertal male patients.
Further clinical uses for Methandrostenolone focused on reporting increases in nitrogen retention and subsequent decrease in nitrogen excretion (30 % lower) and increase in serum protein values aiding in tissue repair and decrease healing time after surgery, burns, fractures or skin grafts.
There are several reports on its use in geriatric states, debilitation, and after chronic infections (tuberculosis) as well as aiding in calcium retention in osteoporosis and increasing red blood cell count in anemic patients.
Steroid hormone interactions are not just limited to the Androgen Receptor and many published reports have exhibited the interaction of Methandrostenolone with the glucocorticoid receptor; blocking their activation and subsequent anti-inflammatory effect.
Methandrostenolone has also been shown to diminish the rate of production of adrenocortical steroid by inhibiting corticotrophin production or release; resulting in lower circulating cortisol levels.
There is research to also suggest Methandrostenolone can augment insulin resistance in Diabetic patients but further research is required as well as former AAS users potentially through increase in Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT).
Athletes and Strength Training
The earliest report of Methandrostenolone being used for physical enhancement was of a dosage of 5mg taken for 3 weeks resulting in a 2.48 kg (5.45 lb) increase in lean muscle mass tissue and has been demonstrated to support maintenance and recovery of strength following a 12 week de-trained period.
Anti – Doping / Fake Supplements
As of the mid 2000s, dietary supplements have come under scrutiny due to the potential illegal containment of AAS; most specifically the Prohormones which were readily available at the time. Out of a study of 103 supplements, 3 were found to contain illegal amounts of undisclosed Methandrostenolone within. Consumers are advised from an Anti-Doping perspective to be aware of what is contained within the products they buy, and as such, particular interest has been paid as of late to the detection of AAS in dietary supplements with new methods of detection constantly being developed and improved upon.
The majority of reported deaths in the literature causatively to Methandrostenolone use are in association with myocardial infarctions or progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the majority of cases note this as a response to polydrug use and not one particular substance.
Health Supplementation to consider when using Methandrostenolone
As Methandrostenolone is a hepatoxic C17-α alkylated compound, particular attention should be paid to the management of prevention of cholestatic injuries to the liver and management of bile metabolism. Bile acids such as Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and synthetic bile derivatives such as Ox-Bile should be considered to aid in bile flow; as well as lipotrophic compounds such as Choline and Inositol to aid in fat metabolism within the liver. Supplement Needs Dr Dean St Mart Liver Stack (https://www.supplementneeds.co.uk/products/supplement-needs-liver-stack-240-capsules) is a combination of 1000mg Ox Bile, 800mg TUDCA, 800mg Choline and 800mg Inositol. Care should be taken to not co-administer TUDCA alongside Methandrostenolone due to a plausible ability to increase hepatocyte uptake of Methandrostenlone resulting in enhanced hepatotoxicity.
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Administration Of Dianabol (Doses)
Originally dosages of 0.1-0.3 mg/kg were prescribed for children in the treatment of muscular dystrophies.
In males, 5mg as a daily dose was the initial prescribing guidelines with no more than 6 weeks consecutive use. This was initially an effective dose but today, in physique enhancement and performance, a dosage of 30-50 mg is commonly observed producing very noticeable and rapid results. A 1981 published athletic performance paper showed a dosage of 100mg was well tolerated for 6 weeks although health markers were not closely monitored. Several other reports in early literature have shown dosages of 0.6mg / kg.
For females, a dosage of 2.5mg was originally prescribed for osteoporosis. However, females should be mindful of the potential virilizing side effects as outlined previously.
Availability Of Dianabol
Methandrostenolone is a controlled substance in the United States and Western Europe, but still remains popular among bodybuilders sourced via the Underground Black Market. However, Methandrostenolone is readily available without a prescription in certain countries as well as also being manufactured in Asia and many East European countries in Black Market Underground Pharmaceutical Facilities such as Alpha Pharma (India) and Balkan Pharmaceuticals (Moldova).
*Steroidal.com has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. You can learn about how we make sure our content is accurate by viewing our editorial policy.
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J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 Nov;58(11):1681-1687.
The Potential Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids and Growth Hormone as Commonly Used Sport Supplements on the Kidney: A Systematic Review
D Davani-Davari et al.
BMC Nephrol. 2019 May 31;20(1):198
Violent crime possibly associated with anabolic steroid use.
Conacher GN, Workman DG.
Am J Psychiatry. 1989 May;146(5):679.
Anabolic-androgenic steroid and adrenal steroid effects on hippocampal plasticity.
Clark AS, Mitre MC, Brinck-Johnsen T.
Brain Res. 1995 May 8;679(1):64-71.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids and brain reward.
Clark AS, Lindenfeld RC, Gibbons CH.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996 Mar;53(3):741-5.
Comparison of the effects of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, Methandrostenolone, and nandrolone decanoate on the sexual behavior of castrated male rats.
Clark AS, Fast AS.
Behav Neurosci. 1996 Dec;110(6):1478-86.
Anabolic steroid abuse among teenage girls: an illusory problem?
Kanayama G, Boynes M, Hudson JI, Field AE, Pope HG Jr.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 May 11;88(2-3):156-62.
Steroids, psychosis and poly-substance abuse.
Duffy RM, Kelly BD.
Ir J Psychol Med. 2015 Jun;32(2):227-230.
[Oral administration of a new anabolic steroid (Methandrostenolone) in pediatric cases].
Minerva Med. 1960 Mar 21;51:990-6.
[Dianabol, an anabolic substance for the treatment of dystrophy in childhood].
Ther Ggw. 1960 Oct;99:466-73.
[Methandrostenolone in children with subnormal weight and/or height].
Prensa Med Argent. 1960 Nov 18;47:3111-7.
[Observations on anabolic therapy with Methandrostenolone in pediatrics].
CHELI E, RAMENGHI M.
Minerva Med. 1961 Feb 3;52:363-6.
Role of anabolic hormones (Dianabol) in prepubertal patients with stunted growth.
Chopra IJ, Ahuja MM.
J Assoc Physicians India. 1966 Nov;14(11):667-73.
The effect of anabolic hormones on the growth of undersized boys.
Greene R, Carstairs LS.
Br J Clin Pract. 1973 Jan;27(1):3-7.
Malnutrition / Body Composition / Wound Healing :
[Action of Methandrostenolone in constitutional thinness].
Dia Med. 1960 May 5;32:796-800.
[Statistical proofs of the action of small doses of an anabolic drug (Methandrostenolone) on body weight].
LAMBERT PA, SITE J.
Presse Med. 1961 Sep 16;69:1638.
Methandrostenolone in the treatment of the chronically ill.
Appl Ther. 1962 Aug;4:720-3.
The effect of Methandrostenolone on nitrogen excretion following open-heart surgery.
Can Med Assoc J. 1965 Oct 9;93(15):816-7.
[Experience with local anabolic therapy of unfavorably healing wounds].
Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966 Mar 12;116(11):241-2.
Methandienone–an anabolic agent in underweight healthy subjects.
Doshi JC, Vaidya A, Gudibanda KK, Gupta KC, Karandikar PV, Sheth UK.
Indian J Med Sci. 1966 Oct;20(10):674-6.
The effect of methandienone (an anabolic steroid) on nitrogen metabolism following surgical trauma.
Patnaik DN, Nath R, Pathak IC.
Indian J Med Res. 1969 Sep;57(9):1751-60.
Starvation and anabolic steroids.
Krizek V, Stepanek P, Sadilek L.
Metabolism. 1969 Jul;18(7):585-92.
Arthritis / Bone Metabolism
Inhibition of negative nitrogen balance by an anabolic agent (Methandrostenolone) during corticosteroid therapy (dexamethasone) in rheumatoid arthritis.
RUCHELMAN H, FORD RV.
Metabolism. 1962 May;11:524-9.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE COMBINED THERAPY OF CALCIUM, ASCORBIC ACID AND AN ANABOLIC HORMONE IN HEALING OF FRACTURES.
SINGH RH, UDUPA KN.
J Exp Med Sci. 1964 Mar;8:116-24.
[Calcium and magnesium metabolism in patients with active rheumatism during treatment with anabolic steroids].
Ter Arkh. 1976;48(5):87-90.
Calcium, vitamin D and anabolic steroid in treatment of aged bones: double-blind placebo-controlled long-term clinical trial.
Inkovaara J, Gothoni G, Halttula R, Heikinheimo R, Tokola O.
Age Ageing. 1983 May;12(2):124-30.
Haemoglobin response to anabolic steroid in iron-deficiency anaemia.
Victor G, Shanmugasundaram K, Krishnamurthi CA, Rex PM, Nagarajan D.
J Assoc Physicians India. 1967 Apr;15(4):177-83.
Methandienone (an anabolic steroid) in iron deficiency anaemia.
Elhence GP, Jain SC.
Indian J Med Sci. 1969 Apr;23(4):193-5.
Androgens and erythropoiesis.
Evens RP, Amerson AB.
J Clin Pharmacol. 1974 Feb-Mar;14(2):94-101.
Effect of anabolic steroids on plasma antithrombin III. alpha2 macroglobulin and alpha1 antitrypsin levels.
Walker ID, Davidson JF, Young P, Conkie JA.
Thromb Diath Haemorrh. 1975 Sep 30;34(1):106-14.
Anabolic steroids in aplastic anaemia.
Kochupillai V, Sharma S, Sundaram KR.
Indian J Med Res. 1984 Aug;80:174-9.
Bleeding oesophageal varices associated with anabolic steroid use in an athlete.
Winwood PJ, Robertson DA, Wright R.
Postgrad Med J. 1990 Oct;66(780):864-5.
[The mechanism of the thymolytic action of anabolic steroids].
Semeĭkin AV, Stanevskaia TIu, Chermnykh NS, Sergeev PV.
Farmakol Toksikol. 1991 Jul-Aug;54(4):37-8.
[The effect of anabolic steroids on proliferative activity of thymocytes].
Sergeev PV, Semeĭkin AV, Dukhanin AS, Solov’eva EV.
Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1991 Oct;112(10):393-5.
[Use of Methandrostenolone in the combined treatment of iron-deficiency anemia patients].
Vrach Delo. 1983 Nov;(11):34-6.
[ANABOLICS IN THE TREATMENT OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS].
MOLINA A, SPRINSKY P, GILMARINO A, CENEDESE JJ.
Arch Argent Tisiol Neumonol. 1963;39:31-5.
Adrenocortical / Cortisol Hormones
Interaction of Methandrostenolone and adrenocortical hormones.
RENZI AA, CHART JJ.
Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1962 Jun;110:259-62.
Effect of an anabolic steroid (methandienone) on the metabolism of cortisol in the human.
JAMES VH, LANDON J, WYNN V.
J Endocrinol. 1962 Oct;25:211-20.
Effect of an anabolic steroid (methandienone) on pituitary-adrenal function in the human.
WYNN V, LANDON J, JAMES VH.
J Endocrinol. 1962 Oct;25:199-209.
Effects of anabolic steroids on hormone-binding proteins, serum cortisol and serum nonprotein-bound cortisol.
Barbosa J, Seal US, Doe RP.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1971 Feb;32(2):232-40.
[Effects of weakly androgenic anabolic steroids on growth in Turner’s syndrome].
Muritano MR, Job JC.
Arch Fr Pediatr. 1985 Apr;42(4):265-71.
Carbohydrate / Insulin Metabolism
Effects of anabolic steroid, methandienone, on carbohydrate metabolism in man.
LANDON J, WYNN V, COOKE JN, KENNEDY A.
Metabolism. 1962 May;11:501-12.
Effects of anabolic steroid, methandienone, on carbohydrate metabolism in man. II. Effect of methandienone on response to glucagon, adrenalin, and insulin in the fasted subject.
LANDON J, WYNN V, HOUGHTON BJ, COOKE JN.
Metabolism. 1962 May;11:513-23.
EFFECTS OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS ON DIABETIC INSTABILITY.
MOLNAR GD, ROSEVEAR JW, GASTINEAU CF, MOXNESS KE.
Am J Med Sci. 1965 Mar;249:280-90.
[The effect of insulin on the anabolic action of dianabol].
Wiśniewski K, Kiluk S, Danysz A.
Acta Physiol Pol. 1966 Sep-Dec;17(5):841-7.
Insulin action and dynamics modelled in patients taking the anabolic steroid methandienone (Dianabol).
Godsland IF, Shennan NM, Wynn V.
Clin Sci (Lond). 1986 Dec;71(6):665-73.
Athletes and Strength Training
Anabolic steroid: effects on strength development.
Johnson LC, O’Shea JP.
Science. 1969 May 23;164(3882):957-9.
[Anabolic steroids and sports].
Schweiz Z Sportmed. 1970;18(2):79-85.
Anabolic steroids in athletics.
Freed D, Banks AJ, Longson D.
Br Med J. 1972 Sep 23;3(5829):761.
The effect of an anabolic steroid on strength and lean body mass.
Med Sci Sports. 1973 Winter;5(4):277-82.
Anabolic steroid: effectiveness as an ergogenic aid to experienced weight trainers.
Stamford BA, Moffatt R.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1974 Sep;14(3):191-7.
Anabolic steroids in athelics: crossover double-blind trial on weightlifters.
Freed DL, Banks AJ, Longson D, Burley DM.
Br Med J. 1975 May 31;2(5969):471-3.
Proceedings: Effects of methandrostenolone on body composition in male students undergoing athletic training.
Hervy GR, Hutchinson I, Knibbs AV.
J Endocrinol. 1975 Jun;65(3):49P.
A double-blind crossover trial of methandienone (Dianabol, CIBA) in moderate dosage on highly trained experienced athletes.
Freed DL, Banks AJ.
Br J Sports Med. 1975 Jul;9(2):78-81.
Effects of large doses of anabolic steroids.
Harkness RA, Kilshaw BH, Hobson BM.
Br J Sports Med. 1975 Jul;9(2):70-3.
The effects of large doses of the anabolic steroid, methandrostenolone, on an athlete.
Kilshaw BH, Harkness RA, Hobson BM, Smith AW.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1975 Sep;4(5):537-41.
“Anabolic” effects of methandienone in men undergoing athletic training.
Hervey GR, Hutchinson I, Knibbs AV, Burkinshaw L, Jones PR, Norgan NG, Levell MJ.
Lancet. 1976 Oct 2;2(7988):699-702.
Effect of an anabolic steroid (metandienone) on central and peripheral blood flow in well-trained male athletes.
Ann Clin Res. 1977 Aug;9(4):215-21.
Human strength and endurance responses to anabolic steroid and training.
Loughton SJ, Ruhling RO.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1977 Sep;17(3):285-96.
Metabolic effects of anabolic steroid on skeletal muscle.
Med Sci Sports. 1979 Summer;11(2):160-3.
Effects of methandienone on the performance and body composition of men undergoing athletic training.
Hervey GR, Knibbs AV, Burkinshaw L, Morgan DB, Jones PR, Chettle DR, Vartsky D.
Clin Sci (Lond). 1981 Apr;60(4):457-61.
[The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on muscle strength, body weight and lean body mass in body-building men].
Søe M, Jensen KL, Gluud C.
Ugeskr Laeger. 1989 Mar 6;151(10):610-3..
Misuse of anabolic drugs.
Robinson RJ, White S.
BMJ. 1993 Jan 2;306(6869):61.
Medico-legal aspects of doping.
Madea B, Grellner W, Musshoff F, Dettmeyer R.
J Clin Forensic Med. 1998 Mar;5(1):1-7.
Prevalence and awareness of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) among gymnasts in the western province of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Al Bishi KA, Afify A.
Electron Physician. 2017 Dec 25;9(12):6050-6057.
Modulation of exercise training related adaptation of body composition and regulatory pathways by anabolic steroids.
Reitzner SM, Hengevoss J, Isenmann E, Diel P.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Jun;190:44-53.
Anti – Doping / Fake Supplements
Investigations of anabolic drug abuse in athletics and cattle feed. II. Specific determination of methandienone (Dianabol) in urine in nanogram amounts.
Frischkorn CG, Frischkorn HE.
J Chromatogr. 1978 Apr 21;151(3):331-8.
Research of stimulants and anabolic steroids in dietary supplements.
Baume N, Mahler N, Kamber M, Mangin P, Saugy M.
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2006 Feb;16(1):41-8.
Doping control for metandienone using hair analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Bresson M, Cirimele V, Villain M, Kintz P.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 May 19;836(1-2):124-8.
High amounts of 17-methylated anabolic-androgenic steroids in effervescent tablets on the dietary supplement market.
Parr MK, Geyer H, Hoffmann B, Köhler K, Mareck U, Schänzer W.
Biomed Chromatogr. 2007 Feb;21(2):164-8.
Selling androgenic anabolic steroids by the pound: identification and analysis of popular websites on the Internet.
Cordaro FG, Lombardo S, Cosentino M.
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011 Dec;21(6):e247-59.
When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids.
Favretto D, Castagna F, Maietti S, Boscolo-Berto R, Ferrara SD.
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2013 Sep;83:260-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2013.05.024.
[Methandienone misuse: interest of medical anti-doping units].
Poussel M, Renaud P, Gambier N, Didelot A, Favre A, Chenuel B.
Therapie. 2014 May-Jun;69(3):249-50. doi: 10.2515/therapie/2014023.
Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for screening methandienone in dietary supplements.
Sýkorová S, Fojtíková L, Kuchař M, Mikšátková P, Karamonová L, Fukal L, Lapčík O, Holubová B.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2018 Sep;35(9):1653-1661.
Drug-drug interaction and doping: Effect of non-prohibited drugs on the urinary excretion profile of methandienone.
Mazzarino M, Khevenhüller-Metsch FL, Fiacco I, Parr MK, de la Torre X, Botrè F.
Drug Test Anal. 2018 Oct;10(10):1554-1565.
[Death caused by pulmonary embolism in a body builder taking anabolic steroids (metanabol)].
Siekierzyńska-Czarnecka A, Polowiec Z, Kulawińska M, Rowinska-Zakrzewska E.
Wiad Lek. 1990 Oct 1-15;43(19-20):972-5.
Clenbuterol and anabolic steroids: a previously unreported cause of myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteriograms.
Goldstein DR, Dobbs T, Krull B, Plumb VJ.
South Med J. 1998 Aug;91(8):780-4.
[Acute myocardial infarction in a young man who had been using androgenic anabolic steroids].
Halvorsen S, Thorsby PM, Haug E.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Jan 22;124(2):170-2.
Myocardial infarction with intracoronary thrombus induced by anabolic steroids.
Güneş Y, Erbaş C, Okuyan E, Babalik E, Gürmen T.
Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2004 Dec;4(4):357-8.
Adolescent ischemic stroke associated with anabolic steroid and cannabis abuse.
El Scheich T, Weber AA, Klee D, Schweiger D, Mayatepek E, Karenfort M.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2013;26(1-2):161-5.
Sudden or unnatural deaths involving anabolic-androgenic steroids.
Darke S, Torok M, Duflou J.
J Forensic Sci. 2014 Jul;59(4):1025-8.
Side effects of anabolic steroids used by athletes at Unaizah Gyms, Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.
Almaiman AA, Almaiman SH, Elagamy EI, Al Wutayd O, Almarzuqi M, Alzunaidi R, Alhatlani S, Eid EE.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2019 Mar;59(3):489-495.
Death after misuse of anabolic substances (clenbuterol, stanozolol and metandienone).
Lehmann S, Thomas A, Schiwy-Bochat KH, Geyer H, Thevis M, Glenewinkel F, Rothschild MA, Andresen-Streichert H, Juebner M.
Forensic Sci Int. 2019 Oct;303:109925.